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Java and XML: SOAP
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Starting Out

The first thing to do is get an understanding of what SOAP is. You can read through the complete W3C note submission, which is fairly lengthy, at http://www.w3.org/TR/SOAP. When you take away all of the hype, SOAP is just a protocol. It's a simple protocol (to use, not necessarily to write), based on the idea that at some point in a distributed architecture, you'll need to exchange information. Additionally, in a system that is probably overtaxed and process-heavy, this protocol is lightweight, requiring a minimal amount of overhead. Finally, it allows all this to occur over HTTP, which allows you to get around tricky issues like firewalls, as well as keep away from having all sorts of sockets listening on oddly-numbered ports. Once you get that down, everything else is just details.

Of course, I'm sure you're here for the details, so I won't leave them out. There are three basic components to the SOAP specification: the SOAP envelope, a set of encoding rules, and a means of interaction between request and response. Begin to think about a SOAP message as an actual letter; you know, those antiquated things in envelopes with postage and an address scrawled across the front? That analogy helps SOAP concepts like "envelope" make a lot more sense. Figure 12-1 seeks to illustrate the SOAP process in terms of this analog.

Figure 12-1. The SOAP message process

With this picture in your head, let's look at the three components of the SOAP specification. I cover each briefly and provide examples that illustrate these concepts more completely. Additionally, it's these three key components that make SOAP so important and valuable. Error handling, support for a variety of encodings, serialization of custom parameters, and the fact that SOAP runs over HTTP makes it more attractive in many cases than the other choices for a distributed protocol. Additionally, SOAP provides a high degree of interoperability with other applications, which I delve into more completely in the next chapter. For now, I want to focus on the basic pieces of SOAP.

The Envelope

The SOAP envelope is analogous to the envelope of an actual letter. It supplies information about the message that is being encoded in a SOAP payload, including data relating to the recipient and sender, as well as details about the message itself. For example, the header of the SOAP envelope can specify exactly how a message must be processed. Before an application goes forward with processing a message, the application can determine information about a message, including whether it will even be able to process the message. Distinct from the situation with standard XML-RPC calls (remember that? XML-RPC messages, encoding, and the rest are all wrapped into a single XML fragment), with SOAP actual interpretation occurs in order to determine something about the message. A typical SOAP message can also include the encoding style, which assists the recipient in interpreting the message. Example 12-1 shows the SOAP envelope, complete with the specified encoding.

Example 12-1: The SOAP envelope

  <article xmlns="http://www.ibm.com/developer">

You can see that an encoding is specified within the envelope, allowing an application to determine (using the value of the encodingStyle attribute) whether it can read the incoming message situated within the Body element. Be sure to get the SOAP envelope namespace correct, or SOAP servers that receive your message will trigger version mismatch errors, and you won't be able to interoperate with them.

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